by: Pandu Wibowo, S.Sos, Chairman of Commission A FSLDK Banten and Researcher CIDES Indonesia
SuaraJakarta.co – If we look at the state of the world today, it’s ironic, because we are living in today, will really feel the damage and irregularities that occur in life. Age is called by the Prophet Muhammad is the time or period 4. In the history of Abu Tha’labah al-Khusuni of Muadz bin Jabbal and Abu Ubaidah, this age is said to be an age of arbitrary rule by rule. In this age also great slander peak of the truth that is covered up by the tyrant.
However, at the time of this unjust, does not mean that Allah let devils spoiled everything. Allah kept alive the good people – though fewer in number than the bad guys-to always hold on to the rope of Allah and fight for religious until Allah honor him as a fighter who strive in the way of love fighters. Good people that we now also see goodness, and we feel kisses love through this dakwah.
Because the good people that, now we know the Ikhwanul Muslimin, Hizbut-Tahrir, Sallafy, Tablighi Jamaat and other Islamic movements which certainly has a method of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah. From this blaze transnational Islamic movement that aspires to restore the glory of Islam and make this world in the shade of the Khilafah Islamiyah. This movement is also called by Dr. Mani bin Hamdad Al Johari in his famous book, Al-Mansyu’ah Al-Musyasarah Fi Ad-Dyan wa Al Madzahib Al-Mu’ashirah as the new Islamist movement which was born after the Ottoman Kingdom expires in 1924.
The birth of many Islamic movements in the 4 period called the Prophet and called as a result of Pan-Islamism by Afgani and Abduh this we need to look in a positive viewpoint. That is before we analyze the ideal format transnational Islamic movement, we need to depart from a positive perspective in advance and try to eliminate the negative perspective. Because if we depart from a negative perspective, certainly we would find and conclude on the birth of a transnational Islamic movements are then followed by a conclusion failure of the Islamist movement. Precisely in the perspective Salim A. Fillah in Futuhat archipelago, is this diversity which will enhance each other.
From the background of the birth of a transnational Islamic movements, we can see his identification problems, that is:
1. What is the difference between a movement with other transnational Islamic movement?
2. Why were there differences in the methodology of the succession process glory of Islam?
3. Who transnational Islamic movement that could be a reference to the ideal format Islamic movement?
Before entering deeper analysis related searches Islamic movement ideal format, we need to put theories and concepts in analyzing it. Theories and concepts is what will help us to answer the big questions of the birth of this movement.
Islamist Movement Theory by Azim Nanji and Olivier Roy
First, the Islamist Movement Theory. In the encyclopedia of Religion, Azim Nanzi said that Islamist movement is a movement that aims to restore the glory of Islam and enforce law in the face of the earth. While Oliver Roy and Valintena Moghadan split two types of transnational Islamist movement. First, a moderate movement. Second, radical movements. Later in development Islamist movement is divided into two poles, ie poles revolutionary and reformist pole. Pole is the revolutionary Islamist movement that goes into the system to Islamize state and society. While polar reform is the Islamist movement Islamize state and society outside the system. The movement started from the bottom and toward the top.
Opportunity of Movement / Politics Theory by Sidney Tarrow
Sidney Tarrow in his dissertation saying that a movement would successfully reach goal, determined by open or closed of chance movements or political opportunity in a country, while in theory the relation between state and religion, Bahtiar Effendy said that the success of the movement to realize its objectives can be seen how countries perceive motion to the religious nature. In this case, Bahtiar Effendy halve relations, the relations that are antagonistic and accommodating.
Transnational Islamic movements such as IM, HT, Salafi, JT is a movement that has the virtue of preaching methods in succession. In the book written by Abu Zaur with the title of Ash-Shahwah al-Islamiya al-waqi bayn Tathlaat wa al-Mustaqbal, prioritize IM Haya’ah Siyahsiyyah which means movement prioritizes political institutions to form a party which fought in every election. If the primary method of IM makes the party then follow the elections, as well as the HT in which to make the party too but did not follow the election process. This is the party that continues to campaign for the establishment of the caliphate state where the literature is called al-Khilafah movement ri’asah hiya ‘amah lil’ l-Muslims fi’d-dunya. Unlike the case with IM and HT, Salafi preaching more priority to the improvement of the creed without forming a party. They tried to move in social and education to master and then used as a way to enhance the Muslim faith. Next is the Tablighi Jamaat movement prefers this one went and delivered the sermon from the mosque to mosque. Enliven the atmosphere of the mosque into their ideals like the days of the Prophet.
If we associate with the Islamic movement theory presented by Olivier Roy and Valentine Moghadan of movement mentioned above can be divided into 2 parts. Roy and Moghadan split second pole, the first pole revolutionary, where the Islamist movement in this revolutionary pole trying Islamize state and society to enter into the system. While in polar reformer, a missionary movement trying to Islamize state and society through actions outside the political system (social, educational, and others).
IM obvious we classify into the revolutionary pole where IM will be able to open a branch which is pretty much in different countries in Indonesia, for example in Tunisia, IM makes an Nahdah party, Palestine with Hamas, Algeria with FIS, Malaysia with PAS, and Indonesia with PKS. While HT, Salafi, JT entered into the category of reformist pole where they would prefer to move outside the system. It also will be the reason Roy said that the Islamist movement that exists outside the system including movement radicalism. Because trying to oppose the state system.
Of the classification, we can see very well that the concept of movement established by Allah through these movements exist in various joints. Both joints in the system and outside the system. This is what seemed to make the infidels difficult to destroy them, because there are Islamist movements everywhere preaching activity.
If we realize the opportunity theory of movement (political) mentioned by Sidney Tarrow in his thesis, we would see very clearly, where the Islamist movement preaching that if the method can be received and the opportunity it succeeds in a country. Sidney Tarrow said that “a movement will successfully reach the goal set by the open or the closed political opportunity or dissemination of basic values within a state.” And of course also from the point of view of demographics and culture of each country. This is what will be able to conclude whether the relationship between religion and the state antagonistic or accommodating. Is the culture also can accept the existing methods of propaganda or otherwise refuse ?.
In the context of Indonesia and Turkey suppose, Mujani in his book entitled Muslim Democrats discovered a phenomenon, in which Turkey and Indonesia are more receptive to revolutionary than reformist Islamist movement – which where entered into the system and prefer to fight in the election. Because the standpoint of the history of Islam in Indonesia through the path of peace. While the Middle East strongly rejects the Islamist revolutionary movement that tried to oppose the system. That’s why every Islamic party wins there is definitely a coup by the military.
Therefore, the rule of Islam in the Middle East should be in force by way of war, because more familiar with Arab culture war as the top issue. Suppose Syria, in Syria is very difficult to enforce Islam by logging into the system, therefore, ijtihad of the Islamist movement – which goes into the classification of reformist pole – there was to reform the war. So we need to know that not all of the cultural community in a country may accept methods of dakwah of all movements.
Differences in approach dakwah methods carried out by the Islamist movements in the world, if we view positively this course is a bureaucracy that Allah created was very good for maintaining religious values in this 4 period – through different methods of propaganda Islamist movements the. If we refer to the concept of bureaucracy Marx Webber, Webber said that there are eight stages to make the bureaucracy within an organization was good. One is the division of tasks between the manager that has many members. The aim is that they can do the work quickly.
If we consider the correct polarization of each of the Islamist movement, as though Allah has divided the tasks of each of these movements. Nothing in politics, campaigning caliphate system, making social and educational institutions, shouting jihad with war, and enliven the mosque. All this of course is not something accidental, but this is Allah’s way to maintain the strength of the religious movement in the period that were damaged, and the most important is to enhance one another.
The conclusion of the discussion about the format of this Islamic movement is the ideal times, every movement that aims to restore the glory of Islam with a method that is based on the Qur’an and Sunnah is ideal Islamic movement. Only a movement that distinguishes it ideal or not, lies in the acceptance of cultural and demographic in a country. If we consider the true elements of the methodology of transnational Islamic movements there, we’ll find a lot of similarities. Among other things, methods and teachings used is Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah, the nature of its movement is not partial, global movement patterns, combine ashalah (originality) and muasharah (present), and combine theory and practice.
Therefore we need a mutual synergies in this propaganda along other Islamic movements. We need to find a constructivist point to create relationships that are conservative movement. Because actually every movement has a drawback respectively, and the difference that Allah created this is a form of love of Allah to strengthen the Islamic movement and also mutually enhance one another in the struggle to restore the glory of Islam.